Web Servers are the programs that are used for hosting services.
Web Servers are deployed on a separate web server hardware or installed on a host as a program.
It delivers content over Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
Web Servers support different types of application extensions whereas all of the support Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).
Web Server Security Issue
Web server vulnerabilities:
- Improper permission of file directories
- Default configurations
- Enabling unnecessary services
- Lack of security
- Misconfigured SSL certificate
- Enabled debugging
Open Source Web Servers
- Apache HTTP Server
- Apache Tomcat
Internet Information Services (IIS)
IIS is a Windows-based webserver.
Components of IIS
- Protocol listener are responsible for receiving and returning protocol-specific requests.
- HTTP.sys are responsible for HTTP requests.
- World Wide Web Publishing Service (WWW Service)
- Windows Process Activation Service (WAS)
Web Server Attacks
DNS Server Hijacking
DNS Amplification Attack
Spoof the source address of the DNS request, by the amplification of the size of the request and using botnets, it results a DDoS attack.
Directory Traversal Attacks
Attacker using trials and error method to access restricted directories to reveal sensitive information.
Man-in-the-Middle / Sniffing Attacks
After a successful intrusion, attacker alters and modify the content of the website.
Attacker looks for misconfigurations and vulnerabilities to exploit.
HTTP Response Splitting Attack
Web Cache Poisoning Attack
The attacker wipe the actual cache of the webserver and sending crafted request to store fake entries.
Web Application Attacks
- Cookie Tampering
- SQL Injection
- Session Hijacking
- Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)
- Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
- Buffer Overflow
Collecting information from internet.
Attacker extract information about internal files.
Web Server Footprinting
Results the server name, type, OS, applications, etc.
Mirroring a website
Download the website, to inspect offline, without any interaction to the target.
Automated tool to inspect website and detect vulnerabilities. These tools perform depp inspection of scripts, open ports, banners, etc.
Hacking Web Passwords
Extract passwords to gain authorized access to the system. Password may be get from social engineering, tampering the communication, etc.
Password Attacks classification:
- Non-Electronic attacks
- Active online attacks
- Passive online attacks
- Default password
- offline attack
- Place web server in a secure zone (behind firewall, IDS, IPS, DMZ)
- Detect potential changes (hashing, script to detect change)
- Auditing ports
- Disable insecure and unnecessary ports
- Using port 443 (HTTPS) over port 80 (HTTP)
- Encrypted traffic
- Server certificate
- Code Access Security Policy
- Disable tracing
- Disable debug complies
- Software update
- Disable default account
Hotfix is a small update which fix an issue. Patch is a bigger of software to fix one or more issues.
- Manual download
Patch Management is an automated process to detect missing security patches, find out solutions, download patch, test the patch in an isolated environment then deploy the patch onto the systems.
- Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA)